Article 1: Definition of Child
Every person under 18, unless national law grants majority at an
Article 2: Freedom from Discrimination
Rights in the Convention to apply to all children without
exception; the State to protect children from any form of
discrimination or punishment based on family's status, activities
Article 3: Best Interests of Child
The best interests of the child to prevail in all legal and
administrative decisions; the State to ensure the establishment of
institutional standards for the care and protection of
Article 4: Implementation of Rights
The State to translate the rights in this Convention into
Article 5: Respect for Parental Responsibility
The State to respect the rights of parents or guardians to provide
direction to the child in the exercise of the rights in this
Article 6: Survival & Development
The child's right to life; the State to ensure the survival and
maximum development of the child.
Article 7: Name & Nationality
The right to a name and to acquire a nationality; the right to know
and be cared for by parents.
Article 8: Preservation of Identity
The right to preserve or re-establish the child's identity (name,
nationality and family ties).
Article 9: Parental Care & Non-Separation
The right to live with parents unless this is deemed incompatible
with the child's best interests; the right to maintain contact with
both parents; the State to provide information when separation
results from State action.
Article 10: Family Reunification
The right to leave or enter any country for family reunification
and to maintain contact with both parents.
Article 11: Illicit Transfer and Non-Return
The State to combat the illicit transfer and non-return of children
Article 12: Free Expression of Opinion
The child's right to express an opinion in matters affecting the
child and to have that opinion heard.
Article 13: Freedom of Information
The right to seek, receive and impart information through any
Article 14: Freedom of Thought, Conscience &
The right to determine and practice any belief; the State to
respect the rights of parents or guardians to provide direction in
the exercise of this right.
Article 15: Freedom of Association
The right to freedom of association and freedom of peaceful
Article 16: Protection of Privacy
The right to protection from arbitrary or unlawful interference
with privacy, family, home or correspondence, or attacks on honor
Article 17: Media & Information
The State to ensure access to information and material from a
diversity of national and international sources.
Article 18: Parental Responsibilities
The State to recognize the principle that both parents are
responsible for the upbringing of their children and that parents
or guardians have primary responsibility; the State to assist
parents or guardians in this responsibility and ensure the
provision of child care for eligible working parents.
Article 19: Abuse & Neglect
The State to protect children from all forms of abuse, neglect and
exploitation by parents or others, and to undertake preventive and
treatment programs in this regard.
Article 20: Children without Families
The right to receive special protection and assistance from the
State when deprived of family environment and to be provided with
alternative care, such as foster placement or Kafala of Islamic
Law, adoption or institutional placement.
Article 21: Adoption
The State to regulate the process of adoption (including
intercountry adoption), where it is permitted.
Article 22: Refugee Children
The State to ensure protection and assistance to children who are
refugees or are seeking refugee status, and to cooperate with
competent organizations providing such protection and
Article 23: Disabled Children
The right of disabled children to special care and training
designed to help achieve self-reliance and a full and decent life
Article 24: Health Care
The right to the highest attainable standard of health and access
to medical services; the State to attempt to diminish infant and
child mortality, combat disease and malnutrition, ensure health
care for expectant mothers, provide access to health education,
develop preventive health care and abolish harmful traditional
Article 25: Periodic Review
The right of children placed by the State for reasons of care,
protection or treatment to have all aspects of that placement
Article 26: Social Security
The right, where appropriate, to benefit from social security or
Article 27: Standard of Living
The right to an adequate standard of living; the State to assist
parents who cannot meet this responsibility and to try to recover
maintenance for the child from persons having financial
responsibility, both within the State and abroad.
Article 28: Education
The right to education; the State to provide free and compulsory
primary education, ensure equal access to secondary and higher
education and ensure that school discipline reflects the child's
Article 29: Aims of Education
The States Parties' agreement that education be directed at
developing the child's personality and talents; preparing the child
for responsible life in a free society; developing respect for the
child's parents, basic human rights, the natural environment and
the child's own cultural and national values and those of
Article 30: Children of Minorities
The right of children of minority communities and indigenous
populations to enjoy their own culture, practice their own religion
and use their own language.
Article 31: Leisure & Recreation
The right to leisure, play and participation in cultural and
Article 32: Child Labor
The right to be protected from economic exploitation and from
engaging in work that constitutes a threat to health, education and
development; the State to set minimum ages for employment, regulate
conditions of employment and provide sanctions for effective
Other substantive items up to Article 40 deal with narcotics;
sexual exploitation; sale and trafficking; torture, capital
punishment and deprivation of liberty; armed conflict;
rehabilitative care; and juvenile justice.